SUBSTRING ========= syntax: (substring <string> <start> [<end>]) This function creates a string, which is part of the <string>. The character of the start-position is included. The character of the end-position is not included. SUBSTRING does not exist in Common-Lisp. In Common Lisp you can use the command SUBSEQ. example: >(substring "abcd" 1 2) "b" >(substring "abcd" 2) "cd"